WHAT IS ISLAM?
What Must We Know About Islam?
Talking About The Origin And Truth
Islamic Religion, History, Belief, Customs
Islam in Definition
What is Islam? — Refer to Arabic language dictionaries you will find out that the meaning of the word Islam is: submission, humbling oneself, and obeying commands and heeding prohibitions without objection, sincerely worshipping Allah alone, believing what He tells us and having faith in Him. So, etymologically, the word ‘Islam‘ has several meanings. Amongst them is “Submitting and obeying”.
While in terminology, ‘Islam‘ means submitting of oneself to Allah by worshipping Him alone, obeying His commands in performing righteous deeds, and abandoning shirk and making the one committing shirk as enemy (Tsalatsatul Ushul/The 3 Foundations, page 7)
The explanation of some scientists about the meaning of Islam in the terminological meaning is divided into 2 parts, namely general and special meaning. (Husul Al Ma’mul, page 7)
ISLAM in the Definition on Quran & Hadith
Islam is a Deen (Religion)
Today, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion (Qur’an 5:3)
Islam is Submission to Allah
The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account. (Qur’an 3:19)
Islam is the Religion of Allah
Do they seek for other than the Religion of Allah?-while all creatures in the heavens and on earth have, willing or unwilling, bowed to His Will (Accepted Islam), and to Him shall they all be brought back. (Qur’an 3:83)
(Sahih Bukhari 1:2:48). Then he further asked, “What is Islam?” Allah’s Apostle replied, “To worship Allah Alone and none else, to offer prayers perfectly to pay the compulsory charity (Zakat) and to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan.”
(Sahih Bukhari 4:52:191). This letter is from Muhammad, the slave of Allah, and His Apostle, to Heraculius, the Ruler of the Byzantine. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. Now then, I invite you to Islam ( surrender to Allah), embrace Islam and you will be safe”
(Sahih Bukhari 009:092:447). While we were in the mosque, Allah’s Apostle came out and said, “Let us proceed to the Jews.” So we went out with him till we came to Bait-al-Midras. The Prophet stood up there and called them, saying, “O assembly of Jews! Surrender to Allah (embrace Islam) and you will be safe!” “Know that the earth is for Allah and I want to exile you from this land, so whoever among you has property he should sell it, otherwise, know that the land is for Allah and His Apostle.”
(Sahih Bukhari 1:4:247). By Allah! I consider him a believer.” The Prophet said, “Or merely a Muslim (Who surrender to Allah).”
Islam is to surrender to God, submit to him, worship him, and serve him…..
The difference arises from the fact that Islam is a Din Submission. Din is the iffinitve of ddna, yadinu, which means to submit or to surrender.
The religion of Islam which god has ordained and promulgated through his prophets is to submit to him alone. It is nothing but submission, worship and service to God and him alone.
Islam in History
Islam is historically originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca,and by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Islamic Golden Age, during the Abbasid Caliphate, refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, when much of the historically Islamic world was experiencing a scientific, economicand cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders and conversion to Islam by missionary activities.
Islam In Beliefs
Basic Articles of Beliefs/Faith
Muslims have six main beliefs/faith (iman).
- Belief in Allah as the one and only God, Allah.
- Allah is eternal, omniscient, and omnipotent…
- Allah has always existed and will always exist.
- Allah knows everything that can be known.
- Allah can do anything that can be done.
- Allah has no shape or form…
- Allah can’t be seen.
- Allah can’t be heard.
- Allah is neither male nor female.
- Allah is just…
- Allah rewards and punishes fairly.
- But Allah is also merciful.
- A believer can approach Allah by praying, and by reciting the Qur’an.
- Muslims worship only Allah…
- because only Allah is worthy of worship.
The One and Only God
All Muslims believe that God is one alone:
- There is only one God.
- God has no children, no parents, and no partners.
- God was not created by a being.
- There are no equal, superior, or lesser Gods.
- Belief in angels (al Malaikah)
There are 10 angels to be believed
Below are the names and functions of the 10 leading Angels (alayhum salam).
- Jibril: To deliver the Divine Revelations from Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala) to His chosen Messengers from among the prophets (alayhum salam).
- Mikail: To manage man’s mundane necessities, bring forth rain and oversee the cultivation of crops.
- Israfil: To blow the Trumpet: once, for the destruction of the universe; and again, for the Resurrection of all accountable beings to face Judgment Day.
- Izrail: Angel of Death, the most fearsome of them all, who does not delay nor expedite the hour of claiming the soul.
- Maalik: Guardian of Jahannum (Hell-fire), an unwelcome sight, for the unfortunate and wretched dwellers of the eternal fire.
- Ridwan: Guardian of Paradise, who welcomes the Prophets (alayhum salam) and the righteous who have been blessed by Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala).
- Munkar : To question the dead on issues relating to his/her God, prophet Salla Allahu ta’ala ‘alayhi wa Sallam, religion, belief, deeds, etc. Questioning in the grave.
- Nakir: To question the dead on issues relating to his/her God, prophet Salla Allahu ta’ala ‘alayhi wa Sallam, religion, belief, deeds, etc.
- Raqib: Sits on man’s right shoulder to record his/her good deeds.
- Atid: Sits on man’s left shoulder to record his/her evil deeds.
Together Raqib and Atid are called the Kirama Katibeen.
“(Remember) that the two receivers (recording Angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions. Not a word does he (or she) utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).” (Qur’an 50:16-18) In another verse (82:11), these Angels are referred to as Kiraman Katibin or “honorable scribes”.
Belief in The Holy Books (Quran)
The Qur’an is the holy book for Muslims, revealed in stages to the Prophet Muhammad over 23 years. Qur’anic revelations are regarded by Muslims as the sacred word of God, intended to correct any errors in previous holy books such as the Old and New Testaments.
The Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad by God in Arabic. Some Qur’an fragments have been dated as far back as the eighth, and possibly even the seventh, century. The oldest existing copy of the full text is from the ninth century.
Although early variants of the Qur’an are known to have existed, Muslims believe that the text we have today was established shortly after the death of the Prophet by the Caliph Uthman.
There are 114 chapters in the Qur’an, which is written in the old Arabic dialect. All the chapters except one begin with the sentence Bismillahir rahmanir raheem, ‘In the name of Allah the most merciful and the most kind’. This is the thought with which Muslims should start every action.
The longest chapter of the Qur’an is Surah Baqarah (The Cow) with 286 verses and the shortest is Surah Al-Kawther(abundance) which has 3 verses.
The arrangement of surahs does not correspond to the chronological order in which they were revealed. The Qur’an is sometimes divided into 30 roughly equal parts, known as juz’. These divisions make it easier for Muslims to read the Qur’an during the course of a month and many will read one juz’ each day, particularly during the month of Ramadan.
Translations of the Qur’an exist in over 40 languages but Muslims are still taught to learn and recite it in Arabic, even if this is not their native language and they cannot converse in it.
Translations are regarded by Muslims as new versions of the holy book, rather than as translations in the conventional sense.
At the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, books were not readily available and so it was common for people to learn it by heart. Committing the Qur’an to memory acted as a great aid for its preservation and any person who is able to accomplish this is known as a hafiz.
The Qur’an is treated with immense respect by Muslims because it is the sacred word of God. While the Qur’an is recited aloud, Muslims should behave with reverence and refrain from speaking, eating or drinking, or making distracting noise.
Belief in the Prophets…
e.g. Adam, Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Dawud (David), Isa (Jesus), Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the final prophet.
Belief in the Day of Judgement…
The day when the life of every human being will be assessed to decide whether they go to heaven or hell. That Allah has the knowledge of all that will happen.
Belief in Predestination…
Muslims believe that this doesn’t stop human beings making free choices.
Islam In Customs And Etiquette
The various manifestations of the conduct, mannerisms and pattern of living of a group of people are called customs and etiquette. The religions revealed to the prophets of Allah also direct their respective believers to follow certain customs and etiquette. The objective of divine religions is purification of the soul. Consequently, these customs and etiquette have been chosen to fulfil this objective.
1) Declaring Allah’s name before eating and drinking and using the right hand for the purpose
- The ceremonial salutation and its response when people meet one another
- The ceremonial utterances after sneezing
- Clipping the moustache
- Shaving the pubes
- Removing hair from under the armpits
- Paring fingernails
- Circumcising the mail offspring
- Cleaning the nostrils, the mouth and the teeth
- Cleaning the body after urination and defecation
- Taking the ceremonial bath after the menstrual cycle and the puerperal discharge
- Ceremonial bath after Janabah
- Bathing a dead body
- Enshrouding a dead body in coffin cloth
- ‘Id al-Fitr
- ‘Id al-Adha
- Separation of the Sexes. During Islamic prayer and services, men and women remain separate. Muslim men are strongly recommended to perform their five brief daily prayers, or Salat, in the mosque. Women are encouraged to perform it in their homes.
- A Muslim husband and father is financially responsible for his family. The wife can work if she likes, but she is under no obligation to pay for family expenses.
- Islam requires that both men and women wear modest attire. When Muslim women reach puberty, their beliefs require them to wear as a minimum a hijab (head covering) and a jilbab (outer cloak) when in public and when performing Salat.
- Marriage. All Muslims are required to marry if they can. If circumstances require it, a husband may have up to four wives, but a woman may only have one husband.
- Don’t greet a Muslim with a hug; Muslim men can only hug their wives and women who are directly related to them.
- Should greatly respect Parents and follow their orders (within Islamic Law).
- Should greatly respect Islamic Teachers and Scholars.
- Should recite Quran everyday.
- Must pray five times a day, on time.
- Should avoid every bad conversation and every bad habit.